HIV and Infant Feeding: A Compilation of Programmatic Evidence
To meet the needs of professionals seeking to prevent mother-to-child transmission but needing help finding and interpreting programmatic findings, QAP has released HIV and Infant Feeding: A Compilation of Programmatic Evidence. The document is intended for professionals involved in 1) updating infant feeding guidelines or adapting them to local settings or 2) developing or scaling up programs to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. QAP and UNICEF teamed up to identify, summarize, analyse, and synthesize reports on programs aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV through infant feeding. The result provides two-to-four page summaries of over 40 programs that addressed HIV and infant feeding.
Most of the programs took place in a single country, mostly in Africa, although three are multi-country programs. Six discussing heat-treating milk or safe water are not connected to any particular country. Program countries include: Botswana, Cote D’Ivoire, Honduras, India, Kenya, Myanmar, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The programs, which were conducted between the 1998 issuance of the first international guidelines and 2003, range in scale from small community research projects to national programs.
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Selected documents from HIV and Infant Feeding: A Compilation of Programmatic Evidence are available below for download:
Concerns Regarding Adherence to Recommended Infant Feeding Strategies Among HIV-infected Women: Results from the Pilot Phase of a Randomized Trial to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission in Botswana. Manuscript. Shapiro R, Lockman S, Thior I, Stocking L, Kebaabetswe P, Wester C, Peter T, Marlink R, Essex M, Heymann S. In press (AIDS Education and Prevention). 2003.
Evaluation of Infant Feeding Practices by Mothers at pMTCT and non-pMTCT Sites in Botswana. Draft report. Rollins NC, Willumsen JF. pMTCT Reference Group, Botswana Food and Nutrition Unit, Family Health Division, Ministry of Health Botswana. 2001.
Working Report on Community Responses to Initiatives to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Botswana. Tlou S, Nyblade L, Kidd R, Field ML. University of Botswana; International Center for Research on Women, Washington; PEER Consultants, Botswana; Society for Women and AIDS, Botswana; Youth Matters, Botswana. June 2000.
Uptake of Infant Feeding Interventions to Reduce Postnatal Transmission of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Leroy V, Becquet L, Ekouevi DI, Viho I, Castetbon K, Sakarovitch CI, Elenga N, Dabis F, Timité-Konan M. Poster MoPeD3677 at Barcelona: Also Exclusive Breastfeeding and Early Cessation of Breastfeeding to Prevent HIV-1 Transmission through Breastmilk presented at the Ghent Workshop on Prevention of HIV Transmission Through Breastmilk, December 12-13 2002, which was based on the same material. The DITRAME PLUS ANRS 1202 project, Abidjan , Côte d’Ivoire, March 2001–May 2002.
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Infant Feeding Practices and Breastmilk Alternatives for Infants Born to HIV-Infected Mothers in Homa-Bay District. Oguta TJ. MSc Thesis. June 2001.
Integrating HIV Prevention and Care into Maternal and Child Health Care Settings: Lessons Learned from HORIZONS Studies. Rutenberg N, Kalibala S, Mwai C, Rosen J. (July 23-27 2001, Maasai Mara, Kenya ) February 2002.
Maternal Knowledge of MTCT of HIV and Breast Milk Alternative for HIV Positive Mothers in South-Western Kenya. Oguta TJ, Omwega AM, Sehmi JK. Applied Nutrition Programme, Dept of Food Technology & Nutrition, University of Nairobi. 2001.
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Early and Abrupt Cessation of Breastfeeding In The Nigerian Context: Is This An Option For HIV Positive Women? Isiramen V. MSc dissertation. Institute of Child Health, University College, London; Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. August 2002.
Breastfeeding Promotion and Infant Feeding Practices in South African Women Living in an Area of High HIV Prevalence. Manuscript. Bentley J, Coutsoudis A, Kagoro H, Newell M-L. University of Natal, South Africa; Medical Research Council, South Africa; University College, London. 2002.
Counseling HIV-infected Women on Infant Feeding Choices in Rural South Africa. Draft manuscript. Rollins NC , Bland RM, Thairu L, Coovadia HM. Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, South Africa; Dept Paeds and Child Health, University of Natal, South Africa; Centre for HIV/AIDS Networking, University of Natal, South Africa; Dept Nutritional Anthropology, Cornell University, USA. October 2002.
Interim Findings on the National PMTCT Pilot sites. Lessons and Recommendations. McCoy D, Besser M, Visser F, Doherty T. Health Systems Trust, for National Department of Health, South Africa. February 2002.
Summary of the Findings and Recommendations from a Formative Research study from the Khayelitsha MTCT Programme, South Africa. Chopra M, Shaay N, Sanders D, Sengwana J, Puoane T, Piwoz E, Dunnett L. University of the Western Cape Public Health Programme; USAID/SARA Project; DoH Provincial Authority of Western Cape. May 2000.
Experiences of breastfeeding and vulnerability among a group of HIV positive women–discussions with a peer support group of HIV positive mothers at King Edward Hospital, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Seidel G, Sewpaul V, Dano B. Health Policy and Planning 2000 15(1):24-33. 2000.
Rapid Situational Analysis of the BFHI in Swaziland. Vilakati D, Shongwe N. May 2001.
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Breastfeeding Promotion and the Dilemma Posed by AIDS in Tanzania. de Paoli M, Manongi R, Klepp K-I. Maternal and Child Health List, MCH News #15. 2000.
Exclusive breastfeeding in the era of AIDS. de Paoli M, Manongi R, Helsing E, Klepp K-I. J Hum Lact 17(4); 313-320. July 2001.
Counsellors’ perspectives on antenatal HIV testing and infant feeding dilemmas facing women with HIV in northern Tanzania. de Paoli M, Manongi R, Klepp K-I. Reproductive Health Matters.
Evaluation of the UNICEF-Sponsored Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission (PMTCT) Pilot Sites in Tanzania. Swartzendruber A, Msamanga G, PMTCT Evaluation Team. Programme Report, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Tanzania Ministry of Health; Institute of Public Health , Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences. December 2002.
Experience of Providing Free Generic Infant formula to mothers in the nevirapine implementation program at Mulago hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Abstract MoPeE3748 from Barcelona AIDS Conference. Matovu JN, Bukenya R, Musoke PM, Kikonyogo F, Guay L. Presentation to EGPAF Call to Action (CTA) meeting in Zambia. August 2002. Personal communication from Laura Guay, January 2003.
Lessons and Experiences with Early Abrupt Cessation of Breast Feeding among HIV Infected Women in Kampala, Uganda. Bakaki PM. Makerere University-Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration (MU-JHURC). January 2002.
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Breaking the Silence, Ending the Stigma: Stigma, HIV/AIDS and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission in Zambia. Bond V, Chase E, Aggleton P. ZAMBART Project, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Lusaka, Zambia; Institute of Education, University of London, London. 2002.
Formative Research on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Bond G, Ndubani P, Nyblade L. ZAMBART Project, School of Medicine, UTH, Zambia, Institute for Economics and Social Research (INESOR), UNZA, Zambia, International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW), Washington. 1999.
Infant Feeding Practices of Mothers of Known HIV Status in Lusaka, Zambia. Omari AAA, Luo C, Kankasa C, Bhat G, Bunn J. University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia; Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. 2000.
Linkages/Zambia PMTCT Results Reporting. AED (Academy for Educational Development)/ LINKAGES Project. December 2002.
Ndola Demonstration Project: A Midterm Analysis of Lessons Learned. Hope Humana, LINKAGES Project, National Food and Nutrition Commission, Ndola District Health Management Team, HORIZONS Project, Zambia Integrated Health Project.Nairobi: Population Council. November 2002.
Ndola Demonstration Project to Integrate Infant Feeding Counseling and HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing into Health Care and Community Services: A Summary of the Findings and Recommendations from the Formative Research Carried Out in Lubuto, Main Masala, Twapia and Kabushi Health Center Areas, Ndola, Zambia. NDHMT (Ndola (Zambia) District Health Management Team). National Food and Nutrition Commission, LINKAGES, SARA. 1999.
Zambia, World Linkages. AED (Academy for Educational Development)/LINKAGES Project. Newsletter article:September 2002.
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Zimbabwean Attitudes and Resource Accessibility as a Measure of the Feasibility and Acceptability of Heat Treating Expressed Breastmilk for Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV & (presentation of same name at 130th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, November 10-13, 2002) Israel-Ballard K. MPH Thesis and Israel-Ballard K, Padian N, Chantry C, Chipato T, Chirenje Z, Morrison P, Chitibura L.
Infant Feeding, Which Way? Chitsike I. PowerPoint presentation.
Education and counselling make a difference to infant feeding practices and those feeding practices make a difference to infant mortality. Tavengwa N, Piwoz E, Gavin L, Zunguza C, Marinda E, Iliff P, Humphrey J, ZVITAMBO Study Group. Conference presentation ZVITAMBO Project, University of Zimbabwe; Harare City Health Department, Zimbabwe. WABA Global Forum 2, Arusha, Tanzania. September 23-27 2002.
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Infant Feeding Practices and Attitudes Among Women with HIV Infection in Northern Thailand. Talawat S, Dore GJ, le Coeur S, Lallemant M. AIDS Care (2002) 14 (5), 625–31. National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Australia; Institut National d’Etudes Demographiques, Paris; Institut de Reserche pour le Developpement, Chiang Mai, Thailand/Harvard School of Public Health, Boston. 2002.
Country Adaptation of Global HIV and Infant Feeding Guidelines and Development of Replacement Feeding Guidelines for Myanmar, 2001-2002. Draft document. Williams C. Stage I: Review of currently used infant feeding guidelines and information on infant feeding practices in Myanmar. UNICEF. December 13, 2001 .
Current Status of Protection, Support and Promotion of Breastfeeding in Four African Countries: Actions to Protect, Support and Promote Breastfeeding in Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, and Uganda. Draft Report. Latham MC, Kisanga P. Based on a rapid review, 2nd October-3rd November 2000; for UNICEF ESARO. January 2001.
Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Asia: Practical Guidance for Programs. Preble AE, Piwoz EG. Washington, D.C: Academy for Educational Development. June 2002.
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Heat Treatment of Milk and Safe Water
Is Drinking Water in Abidjan Cote d’Ivoire Safe for Infant Formula? Dunne EF, Angoran-B ni H, Kamelan-Tano A, Sibailly TS, Monga BB, Kouadio L, Roels TH, Wiktor SZ, Lackritz EM, Mintz ED, Luby S. 2001. J AIDS 2001 28: 393-398.
The Effect of Pretoria Pasteurisation on Bacterial Contamination of Hand-Expressed Human Breastmilk. Final Report (for UNICEF, South Africa). Jeffery BS, Soma-Pillay P, Makin J, Moolman G. MRC South Africa and University of Pretoria. August 2002.
Effects of Lipolysis or Heat Treatment on HIV-1 Provirus in Breastmilk. Chantry CJ, Morrison P, Panchula J, Hillyer G, Zorilla C, Diaz C. J AIDS 2000 24 (4):325–29. University of California, Davis, USA; University of Puerto Rico, IBCLC (Consultant to Ministry of Health, Zimbabwe); Solano County Dept of Health and Social Services, California, USA. 2000.
Final Report: Attitudes of HIV Infected Mothers Towards Expressed and Pasteurised Breastmilk for Infant Feeding. Pullen AE, Mokhondo KR, Jeffery BS. Report (for UNICEF, South Africa ). MRC South Africa; University of Pretoria . August 2002.
Viral Loads in the Milk of Lactating HIV Infected Mothers. Interim Report. Jeffery BS, Webber L, Makin, J. Report (for UNICEF, South Africa) MRC South Africa and University of Pretoria. October 2002.